While such figures appear to indicate a high prevalence of sexting, when broken down they demonstrate a number of differences in the practices and perceptions of young people who sext. As seen in Table 1, high numbers of respondents reported sending sexual images across every age category. The youngest cohort of respondents, however, were less likely to have sent an image of themselves than any other age group.
A similar distribution is revealed by the question of receiving sexual images see Table 2. While fewer of those aged 13 to 15 reported receiving sexual images at 62 percent, they were far more likely to receive than send an image. The survey asked respondents how many people they had sent sexual images to and how many people they had received images from.
As indicated in Table 3, the majority of every age and gender cohort who had sent a sexual image had sent one to only one person, or to no-one, in the past 12 months. Much of the academic and popular discourse about sexting has focused on its differing gender dynamics; that is, there has been a perception that females are more likely to send images, with males being the likely recipients. These differences evaporate, however, when we examine the younger respondents, with post hoc tests indicating that only adult females were significantly less likely than other groups to have sent images to more than five people.
Gender was also a factor in the receipt of sexual images. As the data in Table 4 indicates, of those who had ever received a sext, the largest percentage of young people from all the gendered categories except girls aged 16 to 18 had received a sexual image from two or more people in the past 12 months.
They also confirmed that males aged 13 to 15 and 16 to 18 were similar to girls aged 13 to 15 in that they were more likely to have received images from multiple persons.
For both adult groups and females aged 16 to 18, post hoc tests indicated that the majority received sexual images from one or no partners in the past 12 months. Unlike previous surveys, this survey also sought to understand the correlation between sexuality and sexting. The survey also sought to establish the nature of the relationships between those who send and receive sexual images. Implicit in much of the existing popular discourse on sexting is that it is a practice engaged in by singles or those in the early stages of a relationship; that is, it is part of getting to know someone or attracting the attention of the receiver so that a relationship of some kind might ensue.
The results in Table 5 indicate that respondents in a long-term or casual relationship with the exception of married respondents were more likely to have sent a sexual image of themselves than those who were not in a relationship or who had just started seeing someone. These data are somewhat triangulated by the fact that, as Table 6 illustrates, those who reported being in a long-term relationship were also most likely to have sent sexual images to only one person.
The same was true for those who were married. While much media, educational and political discourse has highlighted gendered pressure see Karaian ; Salter et al.
In the data presented in Table 7, respondents were asked to pick three reasons they were motivated to send a sexual image. These responses have been disaggregated by age and gender. As noted in the literature review, the prevalence data on sexting and young people is varied. Recorded rates of prevalence fluctuate from a low of two percent up to the almost 50 percent reported for those aged 16 to 18 and the 38 percent reported for those aged 13 to Rates of recorded prevalence appear to be closely related to the methodologies, definitions and samples of specific research projects.
This project used an online survey to recruit participants and, while the large sample size allowed for some detailed statistical analysis, it is likely that active participants in online cultures will have been over-represented. However, it is also possible that attempts at representative sampling through phone recruitment—which has been used internationally in a number of international surveys, finding much lower prevalence rates—would likely see prevalence under-reported.
For example, having to gain consent from both the parent and participant before the survey is administered would seem inevitably to lead to under-reporting or non-participation by the very individuals who involve themselves in the activity. Thus, while caution should be urged in looking at the prevalence data presented here, it would appear to indicate that sexting among young people is not a marginal activity. The data thus suggests a small proportion of very active participants, with these participants increasing their risk of negative outcomes.
Evidence from existing qualitative research Albury ; Ringrose et al. The data indicated that a small but not insignificant number of girls and boys send sexual images to multiple partners.
It follows that they are more at risk of these negative outcomes through the behaviours of their sexting partners. Returning to the majority of the cohort, the frequency data indicated that most of the respondents were generally sexting within some kind of relationship and with only one partner.
Indeed, the data seems to reinforce findings from the US Mitchell et al. In doing so they appear to be minimising their risks, something that it could be argued should be taken into consideration by policymakers.
Such findings contrast sharply with much of the media and popular discourse, which constructs sexting by young people in terms of a moral panic. While the data from this study does not allow it to be conclusively stated that those in a relationship are actually sending the images to their partner in that relationship, nor can it be established with certainty that the respondent was in a relationship when they sent or received a sexual image, these data certainly seem to suggest this.
If one cohort is over-represented in the sexting culture it is those respondents who identified as gay or bisexual. More analysis is needed here due to the small sample size surveyed, but gay online cultures that have proliferated around online hook-up applications such as Grindr, SCRUFF and GROWLr see Gudelunas may play some role in normalising the exchange of sexual images and videos for these groups.
The data on relationships also make sense in terms of the types of motivations respondents experienced and expressed. These motivations appear consistent with a system of mutual exchange where particular expectations are constructed. The inherent risk of the activity, while obviously something to be managed by most participants, is also part of the attraction; and it is important to recognise that for most participants who engage in sexting, negative motivations are not responsible for their sexting behaviours.
With media stories of young people being prosecuted for child pornography or child abuse material offences, and tough legislation in place that can ensnare young people who engage in sexting, the phenomenon has become an important topic in recent times. Indeed, under current legislation in many jurisdictions across Australia young people between 16 and 18 years can have consensual sex, but if they send an explicit photo to their partner they may fall foul of child pornography or child abuse material laws.
While the definition of sexting is broad and can incorporate everything from mutually consensual exchanges of images to coercive and exploitative behaviours, the vast majority of young people who engage in the sending and receiving of explicit images do so voluntarily.
Their self-image of their behaviour appears greatly at odds with the laws that seek to protect them and which may actually criminalise them. As Cupples and Thomson That is not to suggest that sexting is without risks, or that there are not broader social pressures that might impact on the volition of young people engaging in such behaviours Lee and Crofts Indeed, there is a gendered double standard around sexting that means young women are more likely to be embarrassed or shamed if things go wrong—although that is not to say boys cannot be shamed or embarrassed as well.
But the policy emphasis here should not be on problematising the behaviour of those who sext through embarrassment or shame; rather, it should focus on problematising the behaviour of those who breach the trust of their sexting partner see Dobson and Ringrose Despite this, these findings suggest that the majority of sexting occurs without negative consequences and within existing relationships.
It also suggests most sexting occurs between a small number of sexting partners. The data also suggests that a significant number of young people engage in consensual sexting and that only a small number do so frequently.
All of this has significant implications for educators and policymakers. The data suggests, however, that these messages do not equate with the motivations of young people engaged in these activities. Rather, a more realistic and effective approach to regulating such behaviour might be aligned with harm minimisation—that is, it would recognise that young people who have online lives will almost inevitably experiment with sexting at some point and there is a need to attempt to minimise the potentially negative outcomes of the behaviour.
Apps such as Snapchat move us closer to this but are certainly not a panacea, as romantic partners may well also want to collect images of each other—a practice apps such as Snapchat make more difficult, but not impossible. Such an ethics may allow participants to understand the context of their behaviour and enable them to identify when they are exploiting others or being exploited.
It could also be effective in ensuring that when young people enter this exchange economy they are aware of the parameters and mutual expectations of their practice.
Registered sex offenders are required to keep the police informed about their personal details and whereabouts. They are also required to report the names and ages of children with whom they live or have regular contact. Registered sex offenders are also prevented from engaging in child-related employment.
Deciding to have sex with someone is a big step. The decision is up to you. The other person must respect your choice. If they physically try to have sex with you without your agreement, they may be committing a crime.
If you are thinking about having sex, you need to be aware of the risks that are involved which include getting a sexually transmissible infection STI like chlamydia and blood borne viruses like HIV. Another risk is unplanned pregnancy. For information about how you can protect yourself against the risks of unsafe sex, contact Family Planning Western Australia or visit their website see contacts below.
All the services below are free for young people and the numbers operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. You can choose to insert either: Send your questions to Lawmail. If you're under 25, or an adult asking on behalf of a person under 18, you can send your questions to Lawmail and we will email an answer to you within 10 days.
This page contains general legal information and is not advice tailored to your specific situation. If you have a legal problem, please seek advice from a solicitor. Please see our disclaimer for further information. This page describes the law in Western Australia. If you want to know about the law in a different state or territory, click here to choose the location. Ask Lawmail Send your questions to Lawmail Can't find the info you are looking for?
When the law is broken, the police and courts may get involved. What you need to know — in full Case study Introduction What do we mean by sex? What does age of consent mean? Safe sex and who can I talk to about having sex? Introduction In Western Australia, there are a few different ages of consent imposing limitations on when and with who you can have sex.
What do we mean by sex? The age of consent is the age at which the law says you can agree consent to have sex. When you are under 13 years old , no one is allowed to have sex with you.
A person who had sex with a child under 13 has committed a serious crime and can be charged, jailed and placed on the sex offender register. The maximum punishment for this crime is 20 years in jail. When you are 13 to 16 years old , it is illegal for another person to have sex with you except when: When you are 16 years or older , another person 16 or older can have sex with you if you both agree to it and they are not someone who is caring for you, supervising you or has authority over you, like a teacher, sports coach, youth worker, counsellor, foster carer, religious instructor, health professional, police officer or employer to have sex with you.
A person who had sex with someone who is 16 or older but who did not agree has committed a serious crime, called rape, and can be charged and jailed. While you are under 18 , it is also a serious criminal offence for someone who is caring for you, supervising you or has authority over you, like a teacher, sports coach, youth worker, counsellor, foster carer, religious instructor, health professional, police officer or employer to have sex with you.
They can be charged, jailed and placed on the sex offender register. No member of your family is allowed to have sex with you. A person who had sex with a child or young person who is a member of their family has committed a serious crime, called incest and possibly also rape and sexual penetration of a child, and can be charged, jailed and placed on the sex offender register.
All adults who have committed a sex crime involving a child are automatically included in a register of sex offenders. Who can I talk to about having sex? Important contacts All the services below are free for young people and the numbers operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week...
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|Adult services classifieds find sexting partner Western Australia||A person who had sex with a 13 to 16 year old outside of this limited situation has committed a serious crime, and can be charged, jailed and placed on the sex offender register. What are you waiting for? Maddy was also told that once she turns 16, she and her girlfriend can have sex legally in Western Australia. No matter what your fetish? We are also not talking here about the additional laws applying to sex that is filmed, photographed or distributed online or by phone for that see our Western Australian Sexting page.|
|Callgirls best brothels||Tony Krone, Holly Johnson. What do we mean by sex? This latter category allowed an open response and was designed to capture respondents identifying as trans, intersex or of other gender variance. Child sex offenders under the age of 18 years may also be included in the register by a court order. In line with the ethical requirements of the project, a range of protections were social escorts find sex your area in place so that participants were aware of the sexual nature of some of the questions and excluded if they were under the age of But the policy emphasis here should not be on problematising the behaviour of those who sext through embarrassment or shame; rather, it should focus on problematising the behaviour of those who breach the trust of their sexting partner see Dobson and Ringrose|
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