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THIS is how long the average sex session lasts across the globe. And it's not good news when it comes to expectations versus reality. Meanwhile, men gave the average answer of 25 minutes 43 seconds. What happens to you when you quit drinking. Wanted man's criminal past. Dream over for Parker as Group 1 winner moves on. The use of sex in advertising can be highly overt or extremely subtle and, on some level, subliminal.
It ranges from relatively explicit displays of sexual acts and seductive behavior aimed at the viewer, to the use of double-meanings and underlying sexual references. Sex in advertising relies on evolutionary processes and varies in effectiveness depending on the culture and gender of the receiver. The use of sex in advertising has been criticized for its tendency to objectify the female body and emphasizing stereotypes. Gender Advertisements ,  a book by Canadian social anthropologist, Erving Goffman is series of studies of visual communication and how gender representation in advertising communicates subtle, underlying messages about the sexual roles projected by masculine and feminine images in advertising.
The book is a visual essay about sex roles in advertising and the differences, as well as the symbolism implied in the depictions of men and women in advertising. When couples are used in an advertisement, the sex-roles played by each also send out messages.
The interaction of the couple may send out a message of relative dominance and power, and may stereotype the roles of one or both partners. Usually the message is very subtle, and sometimes advertisements attract interest by changing stereotypical roles.
As many consumers and professionals think, sex is used to grab a viewer's attention but this is a short-term success. Whether using sex in advertising is effective depends on the product. The use of physically attractive models in advertising is a form of sex in advertising. Physical attractiveness can be conveyed through facial beauty, physique, hair, skin complexion as well as by the model's inferred personality.
This form of sex in advertising is effective as it draws attention and influences the overall evaluation of the ad. Furthermore, such ads create an association between physical attractiveness and the product, sending a message to the consumer that buying it they will help them achieve that physique. Marketers often employ radical tactics such as using sexual imagery in their advertisements to capture the consumer's attention. The latter is communicated by the models using flirtatious body language , open posture and making eye contact with the viewer.
Sexual behaviour can also be displayed using several models interacting in a more or less sexual way. Sexual behaviour in advertising is used to arouse sexual interest from the viewer.
For example, in a Guess clothing advert, while the models are also physically attractive, it is their behaviour such as position, posture and facial expressions that communicate sexual interest in the viewer.
Sexual referents are a more implicit example of sex in advertising. Sex can be invoked in advertising using sexual double entendre or innuendos. The latter rely on the viewer to interpret them. They can be words or images that while not being explicitly sexual, trigger sexual thoughts from the viewer.
Sexual referents are a powerful tool as they drive viewers to create sexual thoughts and interpretations of the product. While sexual referents are an implicit use of sex in advertising, as there is nothing overtly sexual about them, they are placed by advertisers in the aim that viewers will consciously interpret them as sexual.
An example of sexual referents is Volkswagen 's campaign for the Beetle Cabriolet. The advert pixelates the non-existent roof to the car, similar to the pixilation that occurs when female's breasts are exposed in some forms of media. Volkswagen have a history of producing tongue-in-cheek adverts, and this one serves to compare their new convertible to a woman who goes topless at a beach. It implies the car is relaxed and fun, like someone who goes topless at a beach. Sexual embeds are a controversial form of sex in advertising.
They are a powerful technique that advertising agencies do not want consumers to consciously notice. They are subliminal elements that are detected as sexual information solely at the subconscious level.
Sexual embeds can take the form of objects or words that, at the subconscious level or when occasionally consciously identified explicitly depict sexual acts or genitalia. For example, a perfume bottle could mimic a phallic shape and its positioning could suggest sexual intercourse. Embeds are especially effective as they unconsciously trigger sexual arousal in the consumer which drives motivation and goal directed behaviour such as purchase intention.
An example of this technique is a particular cake mix advertisement from Betty Crocker in which it would appear the chocolate icing on the heel of the cake has been painted to look like female genitalia. Amongst millions who viewed the commercial, very few will have noticed anything unusual; however, while this detail might not have been consciously perceived, it would have been interpreted sexually at the subconscious level.
This advertisement, directed at women, puts an emphasis on the sense of touch by using words such as "moist", and on the whole the ad creates a subconscious association between the product and sexual pleasure.
After women achieved the vote in the United States, Britain and Canada in the s, advertising agencies exploited the new status of women. For example, they associated driving an automobile with masculinity, power, control, and dominance over a beautiful woman sitting alongside. More subtly, they publishing automobile ads in women's magazines, at a time when the vast majority of purchasers and drivers were men. The new ads promoted themes of women's liberation while also delineating the limits of this freedom.
Automobiles were more than practical devices. They were also highly visible symbols of affluence, mobility and modernity.
The ads offered women a visual vocabulary to imagine their new social and political roles as citizens and to play an active role in shaping their identity as modern women. Research into evolution explains the use of sex in advertising and the differences between genders, due to different mating strategies.
It is the biological prerogative of the male to reproduce with as many females as possible, as this increases his chances of producing offspring. Because of this need to reproduce as much as possible, males search for cues which signal females are available and accessible, such as seductive behaviour, as well as cues that indicate good health, including facial symmetry,  shiny hair and firm breasts.
Evolutionary research into female sex strategies show that women are more concerned about long term prospects and mates resources,  and less interested in typical male requirements of good health and accessibility. This explains why sexually explicit adverts tend to be directed at male consumers, whereas products aimed at a female market typically involve romantic imagery, and males who are wealthy, intelligent or powerful. The earliest known use of sex in advertising is by the Pearl Tobacco brand in , which featured a naked maiden on the package cover.
Duke grew to become the leading American cigarette brand by Other early forms of sex appeal in advertising include woodcuts and illustrations of attractive women often unclothed from the waist up adorning posters, signs, and ads for saloons , tonics , and tobacco. In several notable cases, sex in advertising has been claimed as the reason for increased consumer interest and sales.
Woodbury's Facial Soap , a woman's beauty bar, was almost discontinued in The soap's sales decline was reversed, however, with ads containing images of romantic couples and promises of love and intimacy for those using the brand. As a result, Jovane, Inc.
Chemicals Group asked the Bombay office of Lintas Bombay to develop a campaign for a new condom brand. The problem was that in the late s, the Nehru government had launched a major population limitation program to reduce India's birthrate. The program was very heavy-handed, using coercion, and demanding that men use condoms.
The product therefore signified an oppressive governmental intrusion. The agency head hit on the idea of a pleasurable condom, "So when the user hears the brand name, he says, "Wow. It's a turn on. Not a turn off. The term was known to well-educated Indians, and that was the intended audience. Correctly predicting the huge impact the ad campaign would have, the agency purchased all the advertising space in the popular glamour magazine Debonair and filled it with erotic images of Bollywood actors and actresses promoting KamaSutra condoms.
A television commercial followed featuring a steamy shower scene. The television ad was censored but the print campaign proved highly successful.
The Italian clothing company Benetton gained worldwide attention in the late 20th century for its saucy advertising, inspired by its art director Oliviero Toscani. He started with multicultural themes, tied together under the campaign "United Colors of Benetton" then became increasingly provocative with interracial groupings, and unusual sexual images, such as a nun kissing a priest.
Calvin Klein of Calvin Klein Jeans has been at the forefront of this movement to use sex in advertising, having said, "Jeans are about sex. The abundance of bare flesh is the last gasp of advertisers trying to give redundant products a new identity.
Several of Calvin Klein's advertisements featured images of teenage models, some "who were reportedly as young as 15" in overly sexual and provocative poses. In , Calvin Klein was the subject of more controversy when it aired advertisements of young children who were only wearing the brand's underwear. This "kiddie underwear ad campaign" was pulled only one day after it aired as a result of public outlash.
Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique Marketing strategies centred around sex have been successful. Employees were hired based on physical attractiveness. Sexuality in advertising is extremely effective at attracting the consumer's attention and once it has their attention, to remember the message.
However the introduction of attraction and especially sexuality into an ad often distracts from the original message and can cause an adverse effect of the consumer wanting to take action. There are some studies that contradict the theory that sex is an effective tool for improving finances and gathering attention. A study from found that there was a negative correlation between nudity and sexuality in movies, and box office performance and critical acclaim.
It is hypothesized by that survey, that this is a result of a general numbing caused by over use of sexual stimuli  in advertising. In another experimental study conducted on undergraduate college students, Brad Bushman examined brand recall for neutral, sexual or violent commercials embedded in neutral, sexual or violent TV programs.
He found that brand recall was higher for participants who saw neutral TV programs and neutral commercials versus those who saw sexual or violent commercials embedded in sexual or violent TV programs..