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recreational sex casual sexual encounters

For a while, we'd hook up every six weeks. But there were a lot of negatives. It could feel … seedy. Where do you go for sex? I didn't feel comfortable taking someone back to my place, as he'd then know where I lived, and I live alone. If we went back to his, I'd have no idea what to expect. With "Aldgate East", we had to walk through a pub to get to the bedroom and I swear there was a train going through the lounge.

You're trusting people you barely know. After a few dates with "Manchester", I agreed to visit his hotel room next time he was in London. I'd always been diligent about practising safe sex, but he had trouble getting in the mood with the condoms and went against my wishes at the last moment. The next morning I wrote him an angry text. I've never felt so violated.

Most often, though, I didn't have sex at all. I generally left home open to the possibility but found, when my date showed up, that I didn't want to see him again, let alone see him naked. There was no spark, or he was dull or gross or just too pushy. One date chased me to the tube trying to shove his tongue down my throat. Another — who started promisingly — changed after his second drink, spilling a glass of wine on me without apologising, and cutting me off each time I spoke. It can be harder to walk away when you've met through Tinder.

When you're matched, you can spend days — in some cases, weeks, months — exchanging messages, texting and working yourselves up, filling in the gaps with your imagination. By the time you meet, you've both invested so much, you've raised your hopes and his.

In some ways Tinder can even work against you finding a partner. I met one guy who was a likely contender for a boyfriend. We went on five dates without sex, just a kiss and a hug. Then one night, he arrived at my place stinking of booze and likely high on something. The sex was over in seconds — a massive anticlimax after such a build-up. We never saw each other again. If we'd met another way, that could have been a blip, an awkward beginning. On Tinder everything's disposable, there's always more, you move on fast.

You start browsing again, he starts browsing — and you can see when anyone was last on it. If five days pass with no messaging between you, it's history. At times, Tinder seemed less like fun, more like a gruelling trek across an arid desert of small talk and apathetic texting. More than once, I deleted the app, but always came back to it.

It was more addictive than gambling. I never dreamed I'd end up dating 57 men in less than a year. I'm off it now. Four months ago, I met a man — "Hackney Boy" — through Tinder and at first, I carried on seeing him and dating others. After a while, he wanted to get more serious.

He's older than me and didn't want to waste time with Tinder any more. I had one last fling with "French Guy", then made a decision to stop. What did Tinder give me? I had the chance to live the Sex and the City fantasy. It has made me less judgmental and changed my attitude to monogamy too.

I used to be committed to it — now I think, if it's just sex, a one-night hook-up, where's the harm? I'm more open to the idea of swinging, open relationships, which is something I'd never have expected. At the same time, it has taught me the value of true connection. It's really obvious when you have it, and usually, you don't.

I hate to say it, but sex in a relationship beats casual sex. Yes, the rush of meeting someone new — new bed, new bodies — can, occasionally, be great. More often though, you find yourself yearning for a nice partner who loves you and treats you well. I believe both your goal and my goal is ultimately to help people have better relationships.

The bottom line is as helping professionals, what are we ALL doing to ensure positive growth in relationships, from the inside-out focusing internally on making our values congruent with our outer world, and then externally in the dynamics of our relationships with others over our lifetime.

I appreciate the discourse you have opened up. Seeing that relationship science is in and of itself a relatively new field of study, and the fact that John Gray has been developing his material for over 20 years and is widely popular cross-culturally in the general public; conducting research in this arena by your research scientists would lend credibility to your cause as well. Try looking at it this way: It is for this reason that I continue to focus mainly on exploring gender differences because it is so sorely missing in the general consciousness of those seeking to improve their relationships.

Your long and unlettered argument relies on obfuscation much too heavily. That is, if one does not become bored and move on to other tasks but perseveres in attempting to understand you, it is not convincing in the slightest. Thank you for concluding with your credentials and verifying what I would have suspected anyways. I can almost hear the jangling of coins in your pocket behind every word. Yes, you have been paid to defend John Gray and his theories.

Your zealotry comes wholesale. I daresay the organically-grown brand of such is higher quality, but it is seldom bought. If we are deficient in any vitamin, it is a tonic of skepticism and evidence-based reasoning that we are in need of, and not the false salves of anecdotal evidence and broad generalizations that have led the public astray in the past and promise no new insights now.

It may be palatable to reinforce sterotypes and lazily reason that things are the way they are because that is how they were meant to be. Nutritionless food tends to be palatable. In your defense of Dr. You go on to suggest that Dr. Gray is simply communicating research findings in a way that is appealing to laypeople.

In fact, our position is quite the opposite. We fully agree with you that it is important for research findings to have mainstream outlets. Gray were communicating actual research findings, we would applaud his work. Unfortunately, the problem is that Dr.

In fact, it contradicts well-established findings on relationship maintenance and relationship well-being. Rather, many of them have been tested and discredited. Finally, I also feel the need to respond to Dr. Speaking as a relationship scientist myself, I can tell you that it is common practice to test for gender effects in every study my colleagues and I run, and I know the same is true of many others in the field. So, when you come across a relationship study that does not mention gender, it is unlikely that gender effects were not tested for.

It is much more likely that there were no gender effects to report, as has been my experience with most of my own findings. Unfortunately, and in contradiction to established scientific research, the public perception pervades that men and women think, feel, and behave drastically differently in the context of romantic relationships. This may come from stereotypes, it may result from the media, or it may even be the work of self-help book writers such as Dr.

But I can tell you one thing about this belief: First of all, I would like to thank Samantha Joel for a well-articulated argument regarding the scientific literature on gender and relationships. I would also like to add that, if one is going to condone using phrases such as "gender intelligence", one might want to be careful how they are defining intelligence; the general public believing that men and women are vastly different certainly doesn't equate with intelligence.

In fact, the only thing it equates with is the aforementioned availability of information e. John Gray's mass-produced self-help books versus an empirically backed scientific article pointing to contrary evidence.

Furthermore, I implore that you use a more relevant example. I don't think it makes much logical sense to compare the body's need for various vitamins to the behaviors exhibited by men and women. You are assuming that they both have the same fundamental basic make-up, which they do not, thereby ruining your argument from the beginning.

Allow me to illustrate: You say that "all vitamins are important to the body's health but if one vitamin is overlooked and we are deficient in it, then certainly it becomes the most important vitamin. By putting forth your "gender intelligence" you are only propagating this deficiency because you're allowing an outlet for people to, let say, chalk it up to differences. Don't you think it would be more fruitful to focus on getting a more balanced intake of vitamins and minerals than isolating yourself to the one causing your deficiency?

If I get into an argument with my spouse, I have less motivation to effectively solve the problem because, well, he's a man and is thus "different" from me. Gray, if you insist upon continuing your endeavor to back-track, despite the amass of scientific literature available to YOU, then I simply ask that you discriminate yourself from the scientific community so as not to confuse the general public and question their so-called "intelligence.

I think we need to be very careful when using clients as our basis for facts and credibility. Gray specifically set up credible research studies with his clients and published these findings? Have these findings been peer reviewed? Have his results been replicated in future studies by other professionals? Gray has observed characteristics he finds to be true within his office, his sessions, and within society.

That's perfectly fine and there's nothing wrong with that. We do it every day as individuals in a variety of capacities. He has an opinion on a subject he sees in his office often. However, an opinion is not science.

An opinion that fuels theory and books is not science. Shouldn't the scientific research come before the books? Is it me or did Mars Venus Coaching just ask the opposing researchers to test their theories for them? The opposing researchers found different results and the responsibility of defending Gray's theories is on him, not the opposing researchers.

Gray's books are popular, but not science. They're enjoyable to read for many, but not science. They help a great number of people gain insight into their relationship and communication patterns, but not science. It's a self-help book that many relate to, but not science. If the books were science-based, I'd love to read the studies.

I hope that Lyndsay Katauskas and Mars Venus Coaching decide to pursue studies to test their theories. It's wonderful for the scientific community to challenge each other and continue these important social discussions.

Thank you for the comments; I take them all to heart. My intention before I write or say something is to assume goodwill. I seek truth, congruency, and mutual respect when interacting with others. When I asked my original question, I was pondering the intention behind publishing an article about casual sex with ulterior motives where people reading the article would find justification in continuing to have relationships lacking emotional depth and maturity. As helping professionals we have an ethical responsibility to be fully present for our clients, and to be able to hear them without prejudice or believing the fallacy that we know better than they do what is right for them.

This is not based on a religious belief, but a spiritual value I hold of coming from a place of unconditional love, and hoping others do the same. Women who are looking for a discreet casual encounter have boyfriends or husbands. They are not looking to date or start new relationship; they just want an nsa casual encounter hookup. All my life I've always been "The Good Girl.

My body looks great and I feel better than I have about it in years. And I want to be able to say that I had some kind of fun for once in my life. The beauty of it is that I have no emotional attachment, and that all I want is a wonderful romp. He Loves Me Not What the latest research says about the benefits and risks of growing close. How the small things we do for our partners could be harming our relationships. Back Find a Therapist. Lessons You Won't Learn In School Here are 10 skills that will clarify your visions and bring you closer to your life goals.

Why Do We Flirt by Text? Are You a Beautiful Questioner? The Call of the Unknown. Follow me on Twitter. Friend me on Faceook. Women and casual sex, the latest research. This explains why women seem to avoid virgins Buddy that is huh Submitted by Neesie on June 14, - 9: It really bothers you that Submitted by Anonymous on June 14, - 2: Pleasure can be many things Submitted by Shanik on June 14, - 1: Submitted by Bjarne Holmes Ph. Hi Dr Holmes While I find the insight in your blog impressive as you describe the casual sex aspects of my sex life exactly I do think you are dismissing John Gray way too soon.

Submitted by Anonymous on July 7, - Professor Holmes, I agree that gender differences are not the biggest area for people to focus upon when dealing with relational issues. Below is what John Gray, Ph. That's not what the evidence says Submitted by Anonymous on July 14, - 2: Katauskas, With all due respect, your argument seriously conflates readability with scientific accuracy. Relationships need more than vitamins Submitted by Nicole Atkins on July 14, - 4: Hernando Chaves on July 14, - 6: Did I mention that Dr.

Gray's books are not science? I appreciate the research Submitted by Lyndsay Katauskas on July 19, - I appreciate the research done to understand relationship health. I wish everyone the best in their endeavors for seeking personal truth and growth. I agree Submitted by Anonymous on November 16, - 1: I have sought out and am Submitted by Anonymous on February 22, - I have sought out and am about to have my very first casual sexual experience. He is SO eager to be with me and that feels good too.

I have finally found the power I've always wanted to have sexually. Post Comment Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.

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Hooking up became a widespread practice among young people in the s and s. Researchers say that what differentiates hooking up from casual sex in previous generations of young people is the "virtual disappearance" of dating, which had been dominant from the postwar period onwards. Today, researchers say, casual sex rather than dating is the primary path for young people into a relationship. Black and Latino students are less likely to hook up, as are evangelical Christian students and working-class students.

Data on gay and lesbian students show mixed results, as some research shows that they engage in hookups at the same rate as heterosexual students, while others suggest that it occurs less due to college parties not always being gay-friendly, as most hookups occur at such gatherings. A study of hookup culture at the University of Iowa found that waiting to have sex does not contribute to a stronger future relationship.

Instead, the study found that what mattered most was the goal individuals had going into a relationship. Individuals who started by hooking up tended to develop a full relationship later, if that was their goal going in. Many specialist online dating services or other websites, known as "adult personals" or "adult matching" sites, cater to people looking for a purely sexual relationship without emotional attachments.

Tinder is a free smartphone dating app that boasts over 10 million daily users, making it the most popular dating app for iOS and Android. If both users swipe right on one another, they are a match, and messaging can be initiated between parties.

This app is used for a variety of reasons, one of which is casual hookups. Men are more likely than women to use Tinder to seek out casual sexual encounters. Despite this, there is social concern as some believe that the app encourages hookups between users.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Casual Sex? For the song, see Casual Sex song.

For other uses, see Booty call disambiguation. Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress. Breakup Separation Annulment Divorce Widowhood. An earlier article in the same newspaper rebutted an attack on the behaviour of American girls made recently in the Cosmopolitan by Elinor Glyn.

It admitted the existence of petting parties but considered the activities were no worse than those which had gone on in earlier times under the guise of "kissing games", adding that tales of what occurred at such events were likely to be exaggerated by an older generation influenced by traditional misogyny: From Front Porch to Back Seat: Courtship in Twentieth-Century America.

Archived 28 May at the Wayback Machine. University of Chicago Press. Review of General Psychology. Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 4 October The Case of Swingers". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality. Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 2 July Journal of College Student Psychotherapy.

Gender Differences, Evolution, and Pluralistic Ignorance". A review of empirical research". Archived from the original on 21 January Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 1 August Should pre-marital sex be legal? Archived from the original PDF on 16 May The Gendered Society Reader: Double Binds and Flawed Options". Annals of Tourism Research. Intentions and Behaviors of Canadian Students". The Journal of Sex Research.

While contrary to no-strings attached hookup discourse, these alternative romance and commitment-oriented scripts are not surprising. Similar discourse messages are present in other aspects of popular media.

It is curious that, although purporting to regale the audience with nonrelational sex, the previously mentioned films Friends with Benefits and No Strings Attached also highlight this; in the end, couples in both movies actually end up in seemingly monogamous romantic relationships.

Although the evolutionary reproductive motives produce contradictory motivations, for both short-term sex and long-term commitment, some media scripts apparently do the same. Despite the high prevalence of uncommitted sexual behavior, emerging adults often have competing nonsexual interests.

Although there is a proportional sex difference, note that a substantial majority of both sexes would prefer a romantic relationship, despite their particular developmental stage of emerging adulthood.

The gender differences observed are modest, and point to the convergence of gender roles in hookup culture; even though there are some gender differences, it should not be ignored that the curves overlap significantly.

Just as the discourse of hooking up is often in conflict with itself, individuals often self-identify a variety of motivations for hooking up. That a substantial portion of individuals reported emotional and romantic motivations appears to be in apparent conflict with the sexual strategies framework discussed earlier, which predicts significant sex differences.

Indeed, some hookups turn into romantic relationships. Paik a found that individuals in relationships that start as hookups or FWBs report lower average relationship satisfaction.

However, this varied as a function of whether the participants initially wanted a relationship. If individuals were open to a serious committed relationship initially, relationship satisfaction was just as high as those who did not engage in initially uncommitted sexual activity prior to starting a relationship Paik, a. The entanglement of more intimate and emotional aspects with sex is something the romantic comedy movies mentioned earlier highlight.

Again in seeming contrast to the sex-specific mating strategies, contemporary hookup behavior involves a high degree of female sexual assertiveness for sexual desire and pleasure.

Contrary to some media messages, individuals do not appear to be engaging in truly no-strings attached sex. Competing interests at multiple levels result in young adults having to negotiate multiple desires, and multiple social pressures.

Again, the most fruitful explanation is that both men and women have competing sexual and romantic interests, with tremendous individual differences in such desires. As such, the simultaneous motivations for sex and romance may appear different. The origins of these pro-sex scripts have been theorized to be due to a subculture focused on male sexuality Mealey, Because same-sex relationships are naturally removed from the reproductive motive, it may be possible that part of the larger hookup culture is borrowed from sexual subcultures involving greater emphasis on the positive erotic.

Most students reported not considering or realizing their own health risks during hookups, particularly those that occurred within their own community such as with someone else on their own college campus. Compounding disease risks, individuals involved in hookups are more likely to have concurrent sexual partners Paik, b. In a sample of 1, college students, among the students who had engaged in oral sex, anal sex, or vaginal intercourse in their most recent hookup, only Although, in Paul et al.

Health-based hookup research like this may lead to programs for correcting misperceptions of sexual risk and sexual norms to ultimately restore individual locus of control over sexual behavior, reproductive rights, and healthy personal decision-making.

In addition to sexual risk-taking, in terms of low condom use, another issue of concern involving hookups is the high comorbidity with substance use.

Alcohol use has also been associated with type of hookup: In one study of men and women who had engaged in an uncommitted sexual encounter that included vaginal, anal, or oral sex, participants reported their intoxication levels: Alcohol may also serve as an excuse, purposely consumed as a strategy to protect the self from having to justify hookup behavior later Paul, This paints a picture very different from popular representations of alcohol and substance use in hookups, which are often handled with a detached air of humor.

A Journal Chronicle Books, is playfully described by the publisher: Although alcohol and drugs are likely a strong factor, it is still largely unclear what role individual differences play in shaping decisions to engage in hookups.

Other factors may include media consumption, personality, and biological predispositions. Garcia, MacKillop, et al. This suggests that biological factors that contribute to motivating the different contexts of sexual behavior for both men and women may be fairly sexually monomorphic Garcia, Reiber, et al.

This may, in some cases, point to fairly stable individual differences. The discrepancy between behaviors and desires, particularly with respect to social—sexual relationships, has dramatic implications for physical and mental health. Despite widespread allure, uncommitted sexual behavior has been shown to elicit a pluralistic ignorance response promoting individuals to engage in behaviors regardless of privately feeling uncomfortable with doing so Lambert et al.

Misperception of sexual norms is one potential driver for people to behave in ways they do not personally endorse. In a replication and extension of Lambert et al. Hookup scenarios may include feelings of pressure and performance anxiety. In Paul et al. Note that this study asked participants about typical hookups, and although this was informative for general patterns, it does not capture specific factors influencing specific individual scenarios.

However, this same study found that feelings differed during compared to after hookups: An individual history of hookup behavior has been associated with a variety of mental health factors. In a recent study of young adults followed across a university semester, those participants with more depressive symptoms and greater feelings of loneliness who engaged in penetrative sex hookups subsequently reported a reduction in both depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness Owen et al.

At the same time, those participants who reported less depressive symptoms and fewer feelings of loneliness who engaged in penetrative sex hookups subsequently reported an increase in both depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness Owen et al. In another study, among sexually experienced individuals, those who had the most regret after uncommitted sex also had more symptoms of depression than those who had no regret Welsh et al.

In the first study to investigate the issue of self-esteem and hookups, both men and women who had ever engaged in an uncommitted sexual encounter had lower overall self-esteem scores compared to those without uncommitted sexual experiences Paul et al.

The potential causal direction of the relationship between self-esteem and uncommitted sex is yet unclear Paul et al. Hookups can result in guilt and negative feelings. The percentage of women expressing guilt was more than twice that of men. This is consistent with a classic study by Clark and Hatfield , which demonstrated that men are much more likely than women to accept casual sex offers from attractive confederates.

Conley replicated and extended this finding, demonstrating that, under certain conditions of perceived comfort, the gender differences in acceptance of casual sex is diminished. Possibly contributing to findings on gender differences in thoughts of worry, in a sample of undergraduate students, more women than men leaned toward a relationship outcome following a hookup. It is possible that regret and negative consequences result from individuals attempting to negotiate multiple desires.

It is likely that a substantial portion of emerging adults today are compelled to publicly engage in hookups while desiring both immediate sexual gratification and more stable romantic attachments. Not all hookup encounters are necessarily wanted or consensual. In a sample of college students, participants noted that a majority of their unwanted sex occurred in the context of hookups: Even more worrisome, a proportion of hookups also involve nonconsensual sex.

In a study by Lewis et al. Unwanted and nonconsensual sexual encounters are more likely occurring alongside alcohol and substance use. A number of studies have included measures of regret with respect to hookups, and these studies have documented the negative feelings men and women may feel after hookups. In a large web-based study of 1, undergraduate students, participants reported a variety of consequences: A vast majority of both sexes indicated having ever experienced regret.

There were few sex differences in reasons for regret, and better quality sex reduced the degree of regret reported Fisher et al. It appears the method of asking participants whether and when they had experienced regret i. On average, both men and women appear to have higher positive affect than negative affect following a hookup.

Those with positive attitudes toward hookups and approval of sexual activity show the greatest positive affect Lewis et al. However, there are also negative consequences experienced by both sexes. Two types of sexual encounters were particularly predictive of sexual regret: Among a sample of 1, individuals who had experienced a previous one-night stand, Campbell showed that most men and women have combinations of both positive and negative affective reactions following this event.

There are substantial individual differences in reactions to hookups not accounted for by gender alone. The gap between men and women is notable, and demonstrates an average sex difference in affective reactions. Yet, this finding also conflicts with a strict sexual strategies model because more than half of women were glad they engaged in a hookup and they were not in the context of commandeering extrapartner genes for offspring.

With respect to scripts, although presumably being sexually agentic e. Although the direction of the sex differences is in agreement with the evolutionary model, that nearly a quarter of women report primarily positive reactions is inconsistent with a truly sex-specific short-term mating psychology and with discourse messages of uncommitted sex being simply pleasurable.

Also inconsistent with both of these theoretical models is that a quarter of men experience negative reactions. Taken alone, neither a biological nor social model is sufficient to explain these individual differences.

Some research has considered the interactions of sex and individual differences in predicting hookup behavior. In this regard, there are sex differences in cognitive processes, but one cannot necessarily presume that the sexes vary fundamentally in their behavioral potentials; rather, they vary in their decision-making, consistent with other evolutionary models.

It is still unclear the degree to which hookups may result in positive reactions, and whether young men and young women are sexually satisfied in these encounters. Fine has argued that sex negativity is even more pronounced for women and the possibility of desire seems to be missing from the sexual education of young women.

Armstrong, England, and Fogarty addressed sexual satisfaction in a large study of online survey responses from 12, undergraduates from 17 different colleges. In this study, men reported receiving oral sex both in hookups and in relationships much more than women. In both contexts, men also reached orgasm more often than women. A challenge to the contemporary sexual double standard would mean defending the position that young women and men are equally entitled to sexual activity, sexual pleasure, and sexual respect in hookups as well as relationships.

To achieve this, the attitudes and practices of both men and women need to be confronted. Men should be challenged to treat even first hookup partners as generously as the women they hook up with treat them.

Taken together, this points to a need for further and more diverse attention to the impact of hookups on the physical and mental health of individuals, as recommended by Heldman and Wade Further, more attention is needed on potential positive aspects of hooking up, such as promoting sexual satisfaction and mutual comfort and enjoyment see Armstrong et al.

Hookups are part of a popular cultural shift that has infiltrated the lives of emerging adults throughout the Westernized world. The past decade has witnessed an explosion in interest in the topic of hookups, both scientifically and in the popular media.

Research on hookups is not seated within a singular disciplinary sphere; it sits at the crossroads of theoretical and empirical ideas drawn from a diverse range of fields, including psychology, anthropology, sociology, biology, medicine, and public health.

The growth of our understanding of the hookup phenomenon is likely predicated on our ability to integrate these theoretical and empirical ideas into a unified whole that is capable of explaining the tremendous variety in human sexual expression. Both evolutionary and social forces are likely facilitating hookup behavior, and together may help explain the rates of hookups, motivations for hooking up, perceptions of hookup culture, and the conflicting presence and lack of sex differences observed in various studies.

Several scholars have suggested that shifting life-history patterns may be influential in shaping hookup patterns. Together, the research reviewed here can help us better understand the nature of uncommitted sex today.

It is worth noting, however, that several shortcomings in our knowledge continue to impede the understanding of hookup behavior. Much of the research asking participants about previous hookup relationships may therefore be biased due to recall. The literature reviewed here primarily focuses on heterosexual hookups among emerging adults, with some researchers not controlling for sexual orientation some purposefully and others restricting to exclusively heterosexual samples.

Future hookup research should venture into the MSM literature to explore patterns of casual sex among these populations to understand other sexual subcultures where uncommitted sexual behavior is prevalent.

Moreover, there exists little published literature on the hookup patterns among lesbians and women who have sex with women. Understanding hookups during the critical stage of late adolescent development and young adulthood is paramount for protecting and promoting healthy sexuality and healthy decision-making among emerging adults. Of the varied experiences and health risks young men and young women will experience, perhaps none are as pervasive and widely experienced as engagement in and desire for romantic attachments and experiences with sexual activity.

This review suggests that uncommitted sex, now being explored from a variety of disciplinary and theoretical perspectives, is best understood from a biopsychosocial perspective that incorporates recent research trends in human biology, reproductive and mental health, and sexuality studies. Both popular scripts and predictions from evolutionary theory suggest that a reproductive motive may influence some sexual patterns, such as motivation and regret following uncommitted sex.

However, patterns of casual sex among gay men highlight inadequacies of the reproductive motive and suggest that further theorizing is necessary before a satisfactory evolutionarily informed theory can be established. We thank Melanie Hill for valuable discussion and feedback on an earlier draft of this review. We also thank Maryanne Fisher and Catherine Salmon for helpful editorial feedback. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun 1.

Garcia , Chris Reiber , Sean G. Massey , and Ann M. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Justin R. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Cultural Shifts in Dating Hookup culture has emerged from more general social shifts taking place during the last century. Representation of Hookups in Popular Culture Contemporary popular culture is now ripe with examples that depict and often encourage sexual behavior, including premarital and uncommitted sex.

Hookup Venues Among college students, hookups have been reported in a variety of college settings. Theoretical Frameworks for Hookup Research An interdisciplinary biopsychosocial model can synthesize traditionally disconnected theoretical perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of hookup culture.

In their comparison of theoretical models, they found that attachment fertility theory posits that short-term mating and other forms of mating outside of pair-bonds are natural byproducts of a suite of attachment and care-giving mechanisms… selected for in human evolutionary history to ultimately enable men and women to seek, select, create, and maintain a pair-bond… pointing to an increasingly coherent picture of the underlying biological and chemical systems involved… that generally operate similarly for men and women.

Prevalence of Alcohol and Drugs In addition to sexual risk-taking, in terms of low condom use, another issue of concern involving hookups is the high comorbidity with substance use. Hookup Culture and Psychological Well-Being The discrepancy between behaviors and desires, particularly with respect to social—sexual relationships, has dramatic implications for physical and mental health. Hookup Regret A number of studies have included measures of regret with respect to hookups, and these studies have documented the negative feelings men and women may feel after hookups.

Conclusion Hookups are part of a popular cultural shift that has infiltrated the lives of emerging adults throughout the Westernized world. Contributor Information Justin R. Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women.

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British Film Institute; Gender differences in casual sex in AIDS prevention: A survey of dating bars. Exploring the occurrence of unwanted sex in the context of hook-ups. Song as a medium for embedded reproductive messages. Sexual agreements among gay male couples. The influence of college student social networks on nonrelationship sex. A cross-cultural perspective on romantic love. Desiring sex, longing for love: Love and sex across cultures.

Media Education Foundation; Positioning the booty-call relationship on the spectrum of relationships: Sexual but more emotional than one-night stands. An analysis of the sexual, alcohol and drug related behavioural patterns of students on spring break.

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